Barotrauma of the Perinasais Sinus
These are accidents that occur in the cavities of the craniofacial massif, when variations in ambient pressure cannot be balanced, due to the obstruction of communication of these cavities with the outside.
The frontal sinuses communicate with the nasa sins through a long, narrow canal, while the maxillary sinuses do so through a much wider and shorter orifice. This explains why barotrauma of the frontal sinuses is much more frequent than that of the jaws. This barotrauma can happen both on the descent and on the climb.
Under normal conditions, variations in ambient pressure during immersion, which produce variations in the volume of air enclosed in these cavities, are compensated by incoming or outing air through the nasofrontal channel or by the orifice of the maxillary sinus.
If this compensation does not occur, a suction is caused by acting on the mucous membranes and vessels, producing secretions, hemorrhages and pain.
If there is an obstruction of these channels the compensation is not made.
In this case there is a kind of crushing of these structures, producing a very intense pain. When the channel clears, the pain disappears almost instantly, reaching the individual to expel mucous membranes that appear in the mask, performing a real drainage.
Pain can begin very close to the surface, increasing progressively if the individual persists in diving. Located at the inner angle of the orbit next to the nose, often the pain suddenly gives way, which means that the communication hole has been unblocked and the diver can achieve its goal: to descend.
On returning to the surface it is common for the scaffolding to observe the presence of blood and mucosity inside his mask.
DURING THE DESCENT THERE will BE A DEPRESSION IN THE PERINAIS SINS AND ON THE RISE A BAROTRAUMA IN OVERPRESSURE
To prevent this barotrauma the diver must inhale the seawater through the nose, causing the water to come out of the mouth. This operation produces an effective washing and vasoconstriction of the mucous membranes along the route made by seawater. The correct conduct in the face of the threat of a barotrauma is to slow down, and if the pain does not disappear, return to the surface and try to blow or do the inhalation. If the problem is not solved by these means, the dive should be given up.
Most of the time, when trying to compensate the ears by performing the Valsalva maneuver, one can simultaneously make the compensation of the perinal sinus.
Treatment of a barotrauma of the perinais sinus is for a doctor. If pain persists after diving, analgesic medicines (aspirin, saridon, etc.) may be given to reduce discomfort and an antibiotic should also be taken until medical consultation
NEVER DIVE WITH FEBRILE SITUATIONS. IT IS THE ONLY ABSOLUTE CONTRAINDICATION